INTRODUCING ACT CleanCoat™

ACT CleanCoat™ is based on a disruptive technology that is specifically engineered to fight harmful microbes. European norm tests demonstrate that when ACT CleanCoat™ is applied to surfaces they become self-disinfecting and decompose microbes like bacteria, viruses, airborne mold spores, and chemical compounds like VOCs.

The coating is transparent and odorless and can be applied to all surfaces, including surfaces with direct food contact. Once exposed to light, it starts a photocatalytic reaction that decomposes microbes and purifies the air.

 

In the presence of indoor or outdoor light, ACT CleanCoat™ uses Titanium dioxide (TiO₂) to turn natural humidity and oxygen into free radicals in a natural process called photocatalysis.

When TiO₂ is exposed to light, it generates electron-hole pairs that transform the humidity in the air into free radicals. Free radicals continuously decompose bacteria, viruses, and the volatile organic compounds that they come into contact with.

Titanium dioxide
Titanium dioxide (TiO₂) is a naturally occurring oxide and is the key ingredient in ACT CleanCoat™. It has a wide range of applications, including as a paint pigment, sunscreen ingredient, and food additive.

THE EFFECTS of ACT CleanCoat™

Decomposing microbes

To be recognized as a biocide within the European Union, a product has to pass a biocidal European norm test (EN-test) and be registered with the European Chemical Agency.

EN-tests are technical standards drafted and maintained by the European Committee for Standardization, the European Committee for Electrotechnical Standardization, and the European Telecommunications Standards Institute.

One of the institutes that has performed an EN-test on ACT CleanCoat™ is the German lab, Dr. Brill and Partner, GmbH. In their report of testing ACT CleanCoat™, they conclude:

After evaluation with poliovirus type 1, adenovirus type 5 and MNV the surface disinfectant ACT CleanCoat can be declared as having “virucidal” properties according to EN 14476:2013. Therefore, after successful experiments with the three above mentioned non-enveloped viruses the test product is also effective against the so-called blood-borne viruses including HBV, HCV and HIV as well as against members of other virus families such as orthomyxoviridae (incl. all human and animal influenza viruses like H5N1 and H1N1), coronaviridae (MERS-CoV) and filoviridae including Ebola virus.

The Danish ISI Food Protection laboratory has also tested ACT CleanCoat™ and concluded:

The results show that ACT CleanCoat™ at an 80% dilution complies with the requirements for chemical disinfectants as defined in EN 13727 against the compulsory organisms S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, and E. hirae and furthermore against MRSA, Salmonella and L. monocytogenes.

Based on the extensive investigations, it is expected that ACT CleanCoat™ will have comparable bactericidal efficacy in the quantitative suspension test against vegetative cells of other pathogenic bacteria.

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TiO₂ is the most studied semiconductor photocatalyst, finding applications in various industrial and environmental applications, such as the removal of contaminants from both water and air or in sunscreens and coatings.

TiO₂ is a well-known photocatalytic antimicrobial agent, in both its bulk (coating, micropowder), and nanometric form. The antimicrobial efficacy of TiO₂ formulations depends on several parameters that include: concentration, contact time, intensity and wavelength of light, pH, temperature, availability of oxygen and target microorganism.

TiO₂ nanoparticles were reported effective towards a large variety of microorganisms, including viruses, bacteria and fungi, with an efficiency influenced by the thickness of the microorganism’s surface structure, in the order of virus>bacterial wall>bacterial spore.

Within bacteria, the efficiency of nano-TiO₂ was found to be in the order of Escherichia coli > Pseudomonas aeruginosa > Staphylococcus aureus > Enterococcus faecium > Candida albicans, reflecting again the dependence of the antimicrobial action to the complexity and density of the cell membrane.

Source: Fundamentals of Nanoparticles, Chapter 4, 3.2.1

Cleaning the air

ACT CleanCoat™ reduces air pollutants, including volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as formaldehyde, benzene, and acetone as well as NOx. VOCs can cause a drowsiness experience in a room with poor ventilation or with new furniture, new carpets, or many electronics.

ACT CleanCoat™ also reduces odors (which are also carbon-based molecules) in the air, providing our clients with better indoor air quality.

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Volatile organic compounds in 25 L Tedlar® bag* concentration (μg/m³) over time (minutes)

Black line: without ACT CleanCoat™  Blue line: with ACT CleanCoat™


Test performed by the National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Hans Christian Budtz
* Tedlar® gas sampling bag

Field data, level of formaldehyde, during office hours.
Minimum 0 ppm, average 0.055 ppm.

08.00-22.00, office hours with light turned on

ACT CleanCoat™ used for air purification, Lars Schmidt Hansen, M.Sc., January 2019

Controlling mold

In nature, mold is necessary to help dead organic material decompose. However, mold poses a significant challenge in buildings. Besides the unpleasant odor and possibly costly renovation of the building, there are serious health risks involved in living and working in a mold-infested environment.

Mold spores are basically everywhere, but with ACT CleanCoat™ they are decomposed before they even settle on a coated surface, inhibiting spore germination, or mycelium growth.

ACT CleanCoat™ has passed several EN-tests for mold and yeasts:

• EN 13624, Aspergillus brasiliensis
• EN 14562, Aspergillus brasiliensis
• EN 13624, Candida albicans (candida yeast)
• EN 14562, Candida albicans (candida yeast)

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Extract from the report: Test of ACT CleanCoat™ by the quantitative suspension test for fungicidal activity according to EN 13624

Results by membrane filtration procedure

For each of the tested strains, the test dates and colony counts of the test suspension and the validation suspension are shown in Table 1, and the colony counts on the filters are shown in Table 2. After 60 minutes of exposure time there were too many survivors of both test strains to allow a precise count; however, an estimate of the number of colonies was made in order to calculate an approximate reduction level. After 24 hours of exposure there were not any survivors of either strain.

Table 1. The colony count results of the test suspension and validation suspension for Aspergillus brasiliensis and Candida albicans.

Strain Date Test susp. cfu/ml Val. susp. cfu/ml
A. brasiliensis 12.09.2014 1,9E+07 1,30E+03
C. albicans 14.09.2014 2,8E+07 1,90E+03

 

Table 2. Colony counts of Aspergillus brasiliensis and Candida albicans after treatment with ACT CleanCoat™ from the test and control (A, B, C) filters for each strain.

 

C. albicans00ca. 500ca. 500169176198178144163

Strain Test (24 h) Test (60 min.) A B C
I II I II I II I II I II
A. brasiliensis 0 0 ca. 300 ca. 300 91 96 100 104 109 94

 

The log10 reduction is calculated as follows:

  • Log10 reduction = log10 (initial cfu/ml in test mixture) – log10 (final cfu/ml after exposure)

The initial cfu/ml in the test mixture is 1/10 of the test suspension density (Table 2), since1 ml test suspension is used for preparing 10 ml test mixture.

For the membrane filtration analyses, 0.1 ml of the test mixture is taken out and filtered. No recovery of colonies in 0.1 ml gives a result of < 1 cfu/0.1 ml, corresponding to a final density after exposure of < 10 cfu/ml. Using the approximate counts after 60 minutes of exposure and 10 cfu/ml after 24 hours of exposure for the calculations gives the following log10 reductions:

  • Aspergillus brasiliensis: approx. 2.8 log10  reduction after 60 min, and min. 5.3 log10 reduction after 24 hours
  • Candida albicans: approx. 2.7 log10 reduction after 60 min and min. 5.4 log10 reduction after 24 hours

 

TESTS and reviews

Reviews
The efficiency of ACT CleanCoat™ has been reviewed and recognized by laboratories and agencies such as:

• European Chemical Agency, EU agency
• Danish Technical Institute, Denmark
• Dr Brill and Partner, GmbH, Germany
• ISI Food Protection, Denmark
• Danish Technical University, Environmental Engineering, Denmark
• Ministry of Environment and Food of Denmark, Denmark
• Chech Technical University, Czech Republic
• North Carolina State University, United States
• Mahidol University, Thailand
• Guangdong Institute of Microbiology, China

ACT CleanCoat™ has passed 10 standardized European norm tests (EN-tests) conducted on the following organisms:

Bacteria
S. aureus
MRSA
P. aeruginosa
E. hirae
E. coli
Salmonella

Mycobacteria
M. avium
M. terrae

Bacteria spores
B. subtilis

Viruses
Adenovirus
Murine norovirus
Poliovirus
EV-71
Influenza A
Influenza B

Mold and yeast
A. brasiliensis
C. albicans

PASSED European Norm Tests

EN number Organisms
EN 13704 Bacillus subtilis
EN 13624 Aspergillus brasiliensis, Candida albicans
EN 13697 Aspergillus brasiliensis, Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus hirae, Escherichia coli
EN 14562 Aspergillus brasiliensis, Candida albicans
EN 14348 Mycobacterium avium, M. terrae
EN 14563 Mycobacterium avium, M. terrae
prEN 16777 Adenovirus, Murine norovirus
EN 14476 Poliovirus, Adenovirus, Murine norovirus, EV-71, Influenza A, Influenza B
EN 13727 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, E. hirae, Salmonella, MRSA
EN 14561 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus hirae

THE CHEMISTRY behind ACT CleanCoat™

Photocatalysis

The natural decomposition of organic matter can be accelerated by the use of a photocatalyst such as titanium dioxide (TiO₂).

Energy-rich electron-hole pairs are produced upon exposure to light (with energy above the TiO₂ band gap). When applied to any material these charge carriers interact with ambient oxygen and water, generating highly reactive hydroxyl radicals and superoxide.

These radicals can either directly attack the surrounding microbial matter or recombine via different pathways, forming hydrogen peroxide.

Hydroxyl radicals, superoxide radicals and hydrogen peroxide are the reactive oxygen species (ROS) ultimately responsible for the biocidal activity of ACT CleanCoat™ through non-selective oxidation of organic material.

The catalyst is never consumed during the reaction, ensuring a continuous process during the service life of the coating. The TiO₂ particles in ACT CleanCoat™ are specifically engineered to work in all environments.

Free radicals induce oxidative stress, and they attack all major classes of biomolecules, mainly polyunsaturated fatty acids, also known as lipids, of the cell membranes.

The free radicals in ACT CleanCoat™ work by oxidizing and attacking the cell membrane of microbes – in other words, the microbes decompose.

The oxidative degradation of lipids (known as lipid peroxidation) is very destructive, as it proceeds as a self-perpetuating chain reaction. After the destruction of the cell wall, the free radicals proceed to oxidize the cell core.

Due to the constant high oxidative rate of free radicals, the oxidation of the cells creates water, carbon dioxide, and minerals. Both the water and carbon dioxide will evaporate, leaving only the cells’ minerals on the surface.

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EVALUATED Effective Against Coronaviridae

Conclusion by Dr. Brill & Partner, GmBH

Therefore, after successful experiments with three non-enveloped viruses ACT CleanCoat™ is also effective against the so-called blood-borne viruses including HBV, HCV and HIV as well as against members of other virus families such as orthomyxoviridae (incl. all human and animal influenza viruses like H5N1 and H1N1), coronaviridae (MERS-CoV) and filoviridae including Ebola virus

Summary of submitted test results

The product’s method of action is innovative when compared to how a standard surface disinfection product reduces microorganisms. Once applied to a surface and dried, the product produces a long-lasting anti-microbial effect.

Conclusion

Titanium dioxide surface treatment is a new and innovative product for disinfection. The preliminary laboratory results, as well as some clinical studies, show the product has a reducing effect on the number of microorganisms when applied on surfaces.